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Gemstone Family - Chalcedony
Mohs' scale - 7 (The Mohs' scale 1 to 10 indicates a gem's scratch hardness, with 10 Mohs the hardest)
Colours - Deep red to red-orange
Carnelian, also called Cornelian, is a member of the chalcedony family. Chalcedony is the name given to a group of compact microcrystalline quartzes in which the crystals are so tiny that they appear as a solid mass. This striking bright orange or reddish gemstone is coloured by iron oxide and the best quality carnelian is semitransparent with an intense colour that seems to glow. The best carnelian is from India, where it is placed in the sun to change brown tints to red. Carnelian has been a popular stone for many years, with its warm tones attracting jewellery buyers and makers alike. Carnelian has a long history and can be found in antique jewellery as engraved or carved cameos.
A few interesting facts about Carnelian
Carnelian is the national gemstone of Sweden and Norway.
Many Muslims revere the stone as it is said that the Prophet Muhammad wore it in a ring.
In tradition, Carnelian is thought to still the blood and calm the temper.